The "Yukagir"-Mammoth
Mammuthus primigenuis

CIRI cv,for the worldexpo 2005 in Nagoya, Japan

"lifesize" ,
283 cm high


3 months, partly in the Netherlands and partly in Japan.

The unique part of this model is that it is not “just a average mammoth” but it is the individual; the “Yukagir mammoth’. When you want to make a specific mammoth individual you must copy everything that defines this animal. The most important part is the tusks. They are different in every animal and they vary in thickness, spiral angle, color and amount of wear in every animal depending on sex and age. Since the head, and the tusks, where in Japan this meant that  we( Tone’ Skelton and me) had to go to Japan to cast and copy the tusks and to finish the model. The making of this model would have been much harder, if not impossible, without the help of; Tone’ Skelton ,” Kan het wat zachter “, Mr. Futoshi Kawanishi, Mr.  Manabu Iyoda, Mr. Masachi Konya, Mr. Shinichi Sano, Dick Mol, miss Mayumi Ogawa, miss Makoto Nanomi, Mr. Nishio and all the people at Nishio Biological Models co. Ltd.  In the summer of  2005 there will be a book printed for the world expo 2005 that is about the yukagir mammoth and the building of the model. Information about this book can be obtained at

The main source for information on this model was the information I got from Dick Mol. The data were taken from the site where the mammoth was found and the work that has been done on the head and the remains  itself.
Literature: Mammoths, sabertooths and hominids – by J. Augusti and M.Anton,
Horns, tusks & flippers – by D.R.Protheros & R.M. Schock,
Vertebrate palaeontology – by M.J.Benton,
Ice age mammals of N. America – by I.M. Lange,
Rise of the mammals – by M.J. Benton,
Prehistoric mammals – by R.J.G. Savage & M.R. Long,
Chauvet cave – J.Clottres,
De grot chauvet – by J.M. Chauvet, E. Brund Deschamps & C.H. Hillare,
Journey through the ice age – by P.G. Bahn. 
Aanloop –by Rien Poortvliet.
Das mammut –by  B. Enggesser, O. Fejfar and P. major,
De Mammoet –  by Dick Mol en Hans v Essen,
Mammuts – by Lister & Bahn,
Prehistoric Mammals – by Turner , Anton and Cifelli,
Evolving eden – by Turner and  Anton .
Animals in motion – by Muybridge, Grossen tierenatonomie – by Bannes,